Civil Rights

Women’s Suffrage

Elizabeth Cady Stanton began pushing for women’s right to vote in the mid-1800s. In the 1870s some western states began granting women the right to vote. By the 1910s thousands of women were protesting for the right to vote. The 19th Amendment, passed in 1915, granted women the right to vote.

Jim Crow Laws

Jim Crow laws were laws meant to separate the races in the southern US. Unfair literacy tests and other laws were designed to keep African Americans from voting. Schools and nearly all public facilities were segregated. African Americans experienced widespread unfairness under these laws.

Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)

Plessy v. Ferguson was a Supreme Court case about segregated train cars. The decision upheld segregation and allowed for “separate but equal” facilities

Brown v. Board of Education (1954)

In Brown v. Board of Education, the Supreme Court decided that separate facilities could not be equal. The case involved Oliver Brown suing over unequal segregated schools in Topeka, Kansas. It led to desegregation of all schools. Some southerners protested, including Virginia Senator Harry F. Byrd Jr. who advocated for “massive resistance” to integration.

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.

Martin Luther King advocated for African Americans to oppose Jim Crow laws. They did this by having nonviolent protests and sit-ins. His most influential works include the Letter from Birmingham Jail (1963) and leading the March on Washington, in which he gave his “I Have a Dream” speech.