Borders and Migration


Religion and Place


Religion and place are key factors in defining a culture.  Religion is a set of beliefs that are part of a culture.  Cultures also often have a sense of place, or an attachment to a location.




Diversity means having many different things.  If a community includes people from different cultures, it is said to have cultural diversity.  Similarly, if a natural environment allows for many different species of living things, it has natural diversity.


Immigration, Emigration and Diaspora


Migration is the movement of people from one place to another.  Immigration is people entering a place or country, while emigration is people leaving.  Diaspora refers to the places a population exists in.  For example if people of a culture emigrate from their home country to many other places, those places are part of a diaspora.


Cultural Diffusion


Cultural diffusion is when aspects of one culture affect another.  If people of another culture move into a community, people of the community may adopt some of the new people’s food, language or fashion





Assimilation is when people of a culture move to a new community and change in order to fit in.  They may have to learn a new language or change their behavior in other ways.







Rural and Urban Settlement


Until industrialization, the overwhelming majority of people in The World lived in rural areas and survived mainly be farming.  With improvements in transportation, manufacturing and other technologies, more people began moving to cities.  Today, more people are moving from rural areas to cities in many countries.















Eid Photo:  Mohammed Tawsif Salam;  Shanghai Photo:  J. Patrick Fischer